Subacute oral toxicity evaluation of the ethanolic extract of Hydnophytum formicarum Jack. tubers in Phu Quoc, Vietnam

Original Research

Abstract

The tubers of Hydnophytum formicarum Jack. have been used for the treatment of rheumatism, liver and intestinal diseases in the traditional medicine of Vietnam. The 50% ethanolic extract of H. formicarum (EEHF) has been proved anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects as well as hepatoprotective activity at the oral doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg in Swiss albino mice. The aim of this work was to study on the subacute oral toxicity of the EEHF at the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg for 30 and 60 consecutive days in both sexes of mice. The observations were undertaken on the mortality, the body weights, the toxic signs, hematological and biochemical parameters. At the end of the experiment, the histopathology of liver and kidneys was studied. The results showed that the 100 mg/kg of EEHF did not cause any toxic signs in mice. There was no significant difference of hematological and biochemical parameters between the treated animals and the controls. Histopathological examinations of livers and kidneys showed no significant difference suggesting no morphological disturbances in treated mice. In conclusion, the results indicated that the EEHF did not cause any subacute toxicity in mice at the dose of 100 mg/kg, providing the evidence of the safety of health products from this medicinal plant.

Graphical abstract

Botanical, genetic characteristics and preliminary screening of the phytochemical constituents of Hydnophytum formicarum Jack. in Phu Quoc forest, Vietnam

Original Research

Abstract

In Vietnamese folk medicine, Bi ky nam (H. formicarum) tuber has been widely used to treat rheumatism, liver and intestinal diseases. This work aimed to study botanical, genetic characteristics and screening of the phytochemical constituents of wild H. formicarum of Phu Quoc Island, Vietnam. Anatomical characteristics of the plant material were described. Fresh leaves were used to analyze DNA barcodes based on rbcL region amplified by PCR. Sequences of DNA products were identified by Sanger method and BioEdit 7.0.5 software, then compared to the control rbcL sequences published in GenBank by BLAST. The tuber powder was studied for pharmacognostic parameters, preliminary phytochemical screening and total phenolic contents by Folin-Ciocalteu method. Results showed that the similarity between the rbcL sequences of H. formicarum leaves collected in Phu Quoc and the control one published in Genbank was 99%. Moisture content, total ash value and acid insoluble ash value of dried tuber powder were 11.06%, 9.60% and 0.70%, respectively. Raw material contained carotenoids, triterpenoids, flavonoids, phenolics, tannins, saponins, reducing substances and amino acids. Total phenolics content was about 58.847 mg pyrrogallol equivalent/g dried powder weight. Our results provided information about botanical, genetic and preliminary phytochemical characteristics of H. formicarum growing on Phu Quoc Island. This could be useful for the authentication of H. formicarum as a medicinal material.

Graphical abstract

Filters