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Roles of Reactive Oxygen Species in Diseases and Development of Novel Antioxidant Therapeutics

Review
  • Long Binh Vong, Nhu-Thuy Trinh, Dai-Nghiep Ngo,
  • Pages 1-6

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) or oxidative stress has been reported with strongly involving to pathogenesis of many diseases in human. On the other hand, ROS play a critical regulation as secondary signal to maintain intracellular redox equilibrium. Basically, the antioxidant defense systems in the body counteract with overproduced ROS. However, when the redox balance is broken under severe oxidative stress conditions, it leads to tissue injuries and numerous disorders. In this review, we briefly introduce the systems of ROS and antioxidants systems in the body and discuss the opposite roles of ROS in normal physiological conditions and diseases. For ROS-related diseases, conventional and currently developed antioxidant therapies are also described in this review.

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Online training needs of Methadone Maintenance Treatment clinics in southern Vietnam

Original Research
  • To Gia Kien, Huynh Ngoc Van Anh, Vu Thi Tuong Vi, Vu Huy Hoang, Nguyen Song Chi Trung, Do Van Dung,
  • Pages 7-14

Introduction: Continuing Medical Education (CME) significantly improves the competency of healthcare workers in Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) clinics. However, CME courses are very costly, and a few participants fully attended a course. Online training is an alternative approach to efficiently improve training outcomes. The study assessed needs and possibility of online training courses of MMT clinics in southern Vietnam.

Methods: A google form was designed to collect characteristics, man-powers, facilities, online activities and training needs of MMT clinics. E-mails were sent to all MMT clinics in southern Vietnam to ask for their participants. A representative of MMT clinics who satisfied the inclusion invited to complete the form.

Result: 93 MMT clinics completed the survey. The response rate was 62% (93/150). One MMT clinic had 3 doctors/assistant doctors, 3 pharmacists/drug dispensers, 2 consultants and 3 other professionals on average. The number of clients visiting the clinic in the last month was 150. About 94% (93/95) of MMT clinics provide other additional services. On average, 385 clients came to MMT for other services. All clinics had adequate devices for online and blended training.

Conclusion: MMT clinics had high training needs and were willing to attend online and blended training courses. Online and blended training were possible in MMT clinics.

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Correlation of axial loaded magnetic resonance imaging with clinical symptoms in lumbar spinal canal stenosis patients

Original Research
  • Nguyen Van Son, Vi Truong Son, Luu Ngoc Hoat, Do Thi Thanh Toan,
  • Pages 15-19

There are cases when symptoms are available but no abnormal stenosis is found in MRI and vice versa. Axial-loaded MRI has been shown that it can demonstrate more accurately the real status of spinal canal stenosis than conventional MRI. This is the first time we applied a new system that we have recreated from the original loading frame system in order to fit with the demands of Vietnamese people. Sixty-two patients were selected from Phu Tho Hospital in Phu Tho Province, Vietnam, who fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The Anterior-posterior diameter (APD), Dura Cross-sectional Area (DSCA) in conventional MRI and axial loaded MRI, and changes in APD and DCSA were determined at the single most constricted intervertebral level. The APD and DCSA in axial loaded MRI had very good significant correlations with VAS for back pain (rs=0.83, 0.79), leg pain (rs=0.69, 0.57) and JOA score (rs=0.70, 0.65). APD and DCSA in axial loaded MRI significantly correlated with the severity of symptoms. Our axial loading MRI provides more valuable information than the conventional MRI for assessing patients with LSCS.

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Commitment: A concept analysis in nursing field

Review
  • Nguyen Thi Nhan, Nguyen Thi Truong Xuan,
  • Pages 20-25

Aim: To clarify the meaning of commitment and to provide the empirical referents to measure the concept of commitment.

Method: By using the Walker and Avant (2011) methodology, data were analyzed with the focusing on critical attributes of concept, constructed cases, antecedents and consequences of the concept. Additionally, the empirical referents and implications for nursing knowledge are presented to further elucidate the concept of commitment.

Findings: The critical attributes of commitment derived from this analysis are 1) Promising to involve in an action; 2) Acceptance of responsibility for the action; and 3) Persistent involvement in an action. The process of analysis concept of commitment leads to a better understanding of the concept itself. Nurses can use the ideas of this analysis as conceptual tools to assess the level of commitment among patients/clients in their action toward the health promoting behavior.

Conclusion: This analysis proposes a definition with the critical attributes of the concept which can be considered to use in nursing practice. Nursing is a universal profession; hence, the definition was proposed from this concept analysis can be considered as a beginning point for the further study in nursing field of each country.

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Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Undergoing Assisted Reproduction

Original Research
  • Tran Thi Minh Chau, Lan N Vuong,
  • Pages 26-31

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine metabolic disorder in women of reproductive age. PCOS is often associated with insulin resistance and carries an increased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of GDM in women with a history of PCOS. This was a retrospective cohort study conducted at a single center in Vietnam between January 2014 and December 2017. A total of 400 women who conceived through assisted reproductive technology (ART) were included, 200 who had been diagnosed with PCOS, and 200 without a PCOS diagnosis as controls. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the association between risk of GDM and PCOS after adjusting for confounders. GDM was present in 37% of those with PCOS, compared with 26.5% in those without PCOS (RR 1.4, 95% CI 1.04–1.87, p=0.02). The prevalence of GDM did not differ significantly between PCOS phenotype groups (p=0.28). Women with PCOS undergoing ART had a higher risk of GDM after adjusting for differences in age, pre-pregnancy body mass index, type of infertility, ART indications, and type of ART (adjusted OR 2.04, 95% CI 1.06–3.92). First-trimester fasting plasma glucose (FPG) was also an independent predictor for GDM (adjusted OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.01–2.34). This study suggests that PCOS and first-trimester FPG are independent risk factors for the development of GDM.

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