Prevalence and risk factors of Ureplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma genitalium among women with secondary infertility in Vietnam – A cross-sectional study

Clinical Article

Abstract

Introduction: Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma genitalium are infectious pathogens resulting in non-gonococcal urethritis and complications such as pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and infertility. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of U. urealyticum and M. genitalium in women with secondary infertility and the related factors to these infections.

Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out from July 2017 to June 2018. Cervical specimens were collected from women with secondary infertility at the Center for Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Hue University Hospital, Vietnam. PCR was applied for detection of U. urealyticum and M. genitalium. Tubal patency was assessed by hysterosalpingography.

Results: Prevalence of U. urealyticum and M. genitalium were 37.9% and 2.1%, respectively. The association was not statistically significant among infection and the following factors like age, educational level, occupation, history of miscarriage, history of genital infection and abdominal surgery, or infertility duration (p > 0.05). There was a statistically significant correlation between U. urealyticum infection and tubal damage according to hysterosalpingography (p < 0.05).

Conclusion: In the case of women with secondary infertility, genital infection with M. genitalium was rare, whereas that with U. urealyticum infection was high and appeared to be associated with tubal damage.

Graphical abstract

Validation of predictive equations against DXA for estimation of body fat composition in Vietnamese children

Original Research

Abstract

Background: Childhood overweight and obesity are becoming more pronounced in Vietnam, so an assessment tool of high efficiency in the community is warranted. This study sought to validate skinfold thickness (SFT) equations for estimation of body fatness by Goran and Slaughter against DXA to aid in assessing obesity.

Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 144 healthy children (ages 6-17) who were conveniently sampled from schools within an urban district. Their anthropometric measurements (height, weight, and SFT) and DXA whole-body results were taken to record body fat percentage (BF%). Bland-Altman analysis and correlation between bias and body fat were employed to understand the agreement between results from each equation and DXA whole body.

Result: BF% was 32.2 ± 7.6% (mean ± SD). 52.8% of the children were overweight or obese. Bland-Altman plots showed that all four SFT equations had wide limits of agreement (LOAs) and largely underestimated the reference BF% by up to 8.90%. Goran equation predicted better when BF% decreased, whereas Slaughter equations produced less bias when there was more body fat.

Conclusion: The prevalence rate of overweight and obesity has become alarming. Besides, Goran and Slaughter equations cannot be used as alternatives for DXA scanning to measure body fat due to their underestimation.

Graphical abstract

Hospital-acquired infections in ageing Vietnamese population: current situation and solution

Review

Abstract

Hospital-acquired infection (HAI) is a growing problem all around the world particularly for countries with aging and high-density population such as Vietnam. In this review, we summarized the current status of HAIs in Vietnam regarding types of infection, rates of infection, hospital-stay duration and cost of treatment, and provided an overview with suggestions on strategies in combating these infections especially in Vietnamese settings. From quite dispersed and varied data reported in English and Vietnamese, we have seen HAI rates of less than 10%. Over the years, the HAIs in Vietnam remained quite stable and even slightly decreased in recent years. Among all HAIs, respiratory tract infections are the most common, occurring in up to 80% of cases. Most Vietnamese statistical data on the etiology of HAIs focused on bacterial HAIs, mostly Candidiasis, whereas limited information was found on fungal infections, nosocomial viral and other parasitic infections. The most important HAI causative pathogens in Vietnamese hospitals include Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida species. There is absolutely few scientific data, but web-based information on HAIs treatment cost and measures to control the infections were found. Works are reported to be implemented to control HAIs in Vietnam at both national and hospital level. However, further improvement in controlling HAIs in Vietnam should be considered.

Graphical abstract

Efficacy of ethanol ablation for treatment of benign cystic thyroid nodules: the first hospital-based study in Vietnam

Original Research

Abstract

Background: In Vietnam, surgery or aspiration is preferred to treat thyroid cysts however each of them still have limitations. Purposes of this study were to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ethanol ablation in treating thyroid cysts and determine factors that predict the outcome of treatment.

Methods: This prospective study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Institutional Review Board of Family hospital and written informed consent for procedures was obtained. From May 2018 to March 2019, 23 patients who underwent treatment for thyroid cysts by EA were enrolled in this study and were followed up for 1 month at Family hospital. The primary endpoint was efficient after one month as the volume reduction ratio was ≥ 50%. Secondary endpoints were improvements in symptoms, cosmetic scores, and safety. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used.

Results: In the finding, from May 2018 to March 2019, only 17 patients who matched inclusion criteria were included in the analyst, including 7 purely thyroid cysts, and 10 predominantly cystic nodules. Mean volume decreased significantly from 5.21 ± 3.37 ml to 2.35 ± 2.52 ml in corresponding to 52.87% of volume reduction with p < 0.05. Ethanol ablation (EA) success rate was 52.90% after 1 month. Symptoms and cosmetic scores were improved significantly. The thyroid function was constant. No adverse events occurred. Purely thyroid cyst was a predictive factor contributing to the success of EA.

Conclusion: EA seems likely to be a safe and an efficient therapy for patients who had purely or predominantly cystic thyroid nodules.

Graphical abstract

Idarucizumab for Urgent Dabigatran Reversal in Clinical Practice: A Case Series of First Use in Vietnam

Case Study

Abstract

The benefits of non-Vitamin K oral antagonists in prevention or treatment of thrombosis have been studied in many randomized control trials. However, episodes of life-threatening bleeding caused by using novel oral anticoagulants have occurred in clinical practice and necessitate the development of aims for reversal of the anticoagulant effects. We report here three cases in which the use of idarucizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody fragment, has successfully reversed the anticoagulation effects of dabigatran and produced favorable outcomes.

Graphical abstract

Tracheomalacia due to trachea compression related to benign goiter

Original Research

Abstract

Introduction: Tracheomalacia can result from long-standing compression by a large goiter. The cartilaginous rings of the trachea may be weakened or destroyed by long-standing compression, causing loss of structural support. Tracheomalacia after resectioning of benign goiter compressing trachea was an important issue. It has extended the time of mechanical ventilation, increased the risk of failure extubating and mortality.

Materials and Methods: Descriptive and prospective study. From November 2014 to January 2017, we have collected 102 patients who had benign goiter compressing trachea and had thyroidectomy. Tracheomalacia was diagnosed and managed intra and postoperatively.

Results: Recognition of women accounted for the majority of 81.4%. The average age was 54.5 years old and the average duration of goiter was 5 years. The patients were hospitalized with the main symptom of dysphagia accounting for 21.6% and difficulty breathing when lying down was 16.7%. On CT scan, the average Goiter was 270g, the average narrow airway diameter was 8.4 mm, of which 12.7% of patients had narrow tracheal diameter <5mm. The rate of tracheomalacia was 4.9%. There were statistically significant differences between the 2 groups with and without tracheomalacia: elderly patients (p = 0.041); goiter long-standing time (p = 0.07); symptoms of positional dyspnea on lying (p = 0.003) and tracheal diameter compressed (p = 0.001).

Conclusion: Tracheomalacia should be noted in patients older than 65 years old, goiter exist longer than 5 years and goiter is over 200g.

Graphical abstract

The short-term result of distal pancreatectomy with splenic preservation

English version

Abstract

Introduction: The tumor of pancreatic body and tail are relatively rare compared to those of head of pancreas.  Splenic preservation in pancreatic carcinoma’s surgery should be decided on every case. This study to determine the feasibility of distal pancreatectomy with splenic preservation, the rate of early complications of splenectomy surgery to preserve the spleen and the factors: tumor size, tumor location, tumor characteristic to help assess the possibility of preserving the splenic vessels in distal pancreatectomy with splenic preservation.

Methods: retrospective study, case series description for all patients aged 16 years and older with distal pancreatectomy and splenic preservation from 01/01/2012 to 31/12/2017.

Result: We had 47 case of distal pancreatectomy with splenic preservation. There were 26 cases of splenic preservation with preserving the splenic vessels (Kimura technique), 13 cases of splenectomy but not preserving the splenic vessels (Warshaw technique). There were 16 cases of laparoscopic surgery, 31 cases open surgery, general complication in surgery 11 cases. The mean age was 41.13 (17-76 years old). The mean hospital stay was 7.7 days (3 days - 21 days). General complication after surgery in 7 cases, pancreatic fistula in 5 cases, no cases need re-operation, no mortality.

Conclusion: The rate of intraopertative incidence was 23.4%; complications after surgery 14.9%. No case of re-operation or mortality in the study. Factors such as tumor size, tumor location, tumor characteristic did not help assess the possibility of preserving the splenic vessels in of distal pancreatectomy with splenic preservation.

Graphical abstract

Subacute oral toxicity evaluation of the ethanolic extract of Hydnophytum formicarum Jack. tubers in Phu Quoc, Vietnam

Original Research

Abstract

The tubers of Hydnophytum formicarum Jack. have been used for the treatment of rheumatism, liver and intestinal diseases in the traditional medicine of Vietnam. The 50% ethanolic extract of H. formicarum (EEHF) has been proved anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects as well as hepatoprotective activity at the oral doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg in Swiss albino mice. The aim of this work was to study on the subacute oral toxicity of the EEHF at the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg for 30 and 60 consecutive days in both sexes of mice. The observations were undertaken on the mortality, the body weights, the toxic signs, hematological and biochemical parameters. At the end of the experiment, the histopathology of liver and kidneys was studied. The results showed that the 100 mg/kg of EEHF did not cause any toxic signs in mice. There was no significant difference of hematological and biochemical parameters between the treated animals and the controls. Histopathological examinations of livers and kidneys showed no significant difference suggesting no morphological disturbances in treated mice. In conclusion, the results indicated that the EEHF did not cause any subacute toxicity in mice at the dose of 100 mg/kg, providing the evidence of the safety of health products from this medicinal plant.

Graphical abstract

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