Implementation status of antimicrobial stewardship programs in hospitals: A quantitative analysis study in Ho Chi Minh city, Vietnam

Original Research

Abstract

Vietnam has one of the highest multi drug resistance in Asia. Although, despite many efforts to implement the Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs (the ASP) since 2016, studies that on the implementation policy are very lacking of this program are limited. For that reason, we conducted this cross-sectional study to analyze the viewpoint of health workers (HWs) on the implementation of the ASP at some hospitals in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC). An assessment of 234 HWs showed that the implementation of the ASP in HCMC hospitals was above average (62.7/100.0). A barrier to the implementation consisted of the deficiency in finances, guidelines for diagnosis, and specific interventions for some common infections, such as distributing current antibiogram and monitoring rate of Clostridioides difficile infections. These were the widely recognized problems in initially implementing the ASP. Although most HWs are aware of the importance of implementing the ASP (79.1%), the specific assessment has not been recorded clearly due to the numerous neutral responses. Despite the support of the leadership, the implementation still faces many difficulties and limitations, especially in 3rd and 4th class hospitals. Besides, there was a lack of wide dissemination of information on the ASP at each unit. To generalize the status of the ASP implementation, researchers should conduct qualitative and quantitative studies with a larger scale.

Graphical abstract

Evidence-based medicine education improve clinical knowledge of 4th year medical students in the university of medicine and pharmacy at Ho Chi Minh City

Letter to Editor

Abstract

Evidence based medicine (EBM) education is a modern method for medical students in clinical training based on the reasonable use of the best evidence in making decisions about individual patient’s treatment. EBM education syllabus teaches medical student how to integrate the clinical experience and patient examination with the simplest out-there analysis data for increasing the utilization of top quality clinical analysis in clinical deciding, this methodology requires new literature looking out and proof evaluating skills. Thus, replacing the recently educated method by EBM has more challenges, the new program ought to analysis fastidiously for evaluating the behavior changes, the development of clinical skills and analysis the ultimate examination score for evaluating the effectiveness of EBM program. The result show that active teaching proves to be statistically completely different and has robust impact toward the ultimate outcome. EBM educated method might improve clinical knowledge and application of PBL/EBM brings concerning higher scores compared to recently educated method.

Graphical abstract

Virtual Screening, Oriented-synthesis and Evaluation of Lipase Inhibitory Activity of Benzyl Amino Chalcone Derivatives

Original Research

Abstract

Nowadays, obesity has been becoming one of the most popular problems to the global health. Molecular design with the aid of computing method is an efficient and cost-saving solution in the initial research of new potential drugs for the treatment of obesity. This study focused on benzyl amino chalcone derivatives as they have a benzyl group that can mimic the hydrophobic effect of the long chain carbon of Orlistat, a drug used to treat obesity. Initially, 102 molecular structures were prepared and docked into the protein by using AutoDock Vina version 1.5.6. Fourteen structures having good docking scores were selected to synthesize using a Claisen-Schmidt reaction. Afterward, these synthesized chalcones were tested biological activity against pancreatic lipase by spectrophotometric determination at a wavelength of 405 nm, using p-nitro phenyl palmitate as the substrate. The co-crystallized ligand of pancreatic lipase enzyme was redocked into the enzyme and the RMSD was 1.4976 Å which showed the ligand and the protein preparation could regenerate the practical experiment. As the docking results, the binding affinities of top ten compounds varied from -8.6 and -10.2 kcal/mol. Biological testing resulted in 4 derivatives with IC50 >120 µM, 8 derivatives with 60 µM < IC50 < 120 µM and 2 derivatives with IC50 < 60 µM. In addition, the docking results also confirmed the key role of amino acid Ser152 in interacting with the ligands. The benzyl amino chalcone derivatives are required for further investigation to become a lead compound for anti-obesity drug discovery.

Graphical abstract

Evaluation of ESP Effectiveness in Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Medicine and Pharmacy at Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

Original Research

Abstract

Since 2011, English for Specific Purposes (ESP) curriculum in Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Medicine and Pharmacy at Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnam) has been changed in accordance with pharmaceutical specialization orientation and did apply the active learning-learner centered teaching methods. Our study used three self-administered questionnaires to collect the feedbacks from sophomores, final-year and pharmacist graduating in 2016 in evaluating ESP course effectiveness. Data analyzed with STATA 13 indicated that English lecturers made efforts to organize the active learning activities in ESP class but their target has neither been effective nor met the required students’ needs in academic purposes as well as their occupational purposes. In addition, students’ passivity and lack of apparent motivation made it more difficult to apply the active learning method. Generally, final-year pharmacy students and newly graduated pharmacists, besides their moderate English competence, had a low frequency in using English. It is also found that there exists the relationship between final-year pharmacy students’ frequency of using English, their English competence and pharmaceutical specialization as well as that between English use frequency and occupation.

Graphical abstract

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