Validation of TWIST score in the diagnosis of testicular torsion in children: A Prospective study

Original Research


Background: Early diagnosis is key in testicular torsion. This study is to validate the diagnostic value of the “Testicular Workup for Ischemia and Suspected Torsion (TWIST)" score for evaluating acute scrotum in children.

Methods: Patients from 1 month old to 16 years old presented to Children’s hospital No.1 with acute scrotum between June 1 st, 2020, and May 31 st, 2021 were prospectively studied. General surgeons performed an examination and recorded signs and symptoms in the collection form. After that, all patients had Scrotal Doppler Ultrasound (DUS). We calculated the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive, and negative predictive values of the TWIST score. The ROC curve was used to find out the optimal cut-off in diagnosing Testicular torsion (TT) in Children.

Results: Among 68 children with acute scrotum, 16 cases had TT (23.5%). The median age was 12.5 years in the TT group and 9 years in the non-TT group. None of 32 patients with the TWIST score ≤ 2 had TT and among 20 patients with a score of 3 – 4, only one had TT. More importantly, in the high-risk group with a score ≥ 5, 15 had TT (93.8%). ROC curve revealed an AUC of 0.987 (p<0,001) representing a high diagnostic value. The sensitivity and specificity for TT at 5-point cut-off were 93.7% and 98.1%, respectively.

Conclusions: The TWIST scoring system has high sensitivity and specificity values. Therefore, it should be used as a useful tool for the diagnosis of testicular torsion. The score ≥ 5 is an indicator of testicular torsion, hence emergency surgical intervention is required. 

Graphical abstract