Clinical characteristics, interventions and outcomes of acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding: A multicenter study in Vietnam

Original Research

Abstract

Introduction: Despite many medical advances, acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding in Asia has been increasing gradually and has resulted in substantial mortality. The study aimed to describe the clinical characteristics, interventions, and outcomes of acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding in Vietnamese people.

Methods: A multicenter cohort study was prospectively and retrospectively conducted in patients presenting with acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding in Vietnam. Severe lower gastrointestinal bleeding was defined as persistent bleeding within the first 24 hours and/or recurrent bleeding after 24 hours of stability accompanied by a reduction in hematocrit of ≥ 20% and/or transfusion of ≥ 2 units of red blood cells. The clinical characteristics, interventions, and adverse outcomes were recorded.

Results: There were 811 patients with a male: female ratio of 1.07 and a mean age of 61 years. A total of 85.6% of patients presented with hematochezia. The common causes of acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding were hemorrhoids (28.6%), diverticulosis (9.7%), and unknown origin (16%). The rates of blood transfusion, endoscopic therapy, radiologic intervention, and surgery were 39.8%, 8.6%, 0.5%, and 7.3%, respectively. Severe lower gastrointestinal bleeding was observed in 222 (27.4%) patients. In-hospital deaths were recorded in 17 (2.1%) patients. The majority of in-hospital deaths were due to unstable comorbidities.

Conclusions: Hemorrhoids were the most common cause of acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding. The rates of blood transfusion, endoscopic hemostasis, interventional radiology, and surgery were 39.8%, 8.6%, 0.5%, and 7.3%, respectively. A total of 27.4% of cases progressed to severe bleeding. 

Graphical abstract

Short-term results of sutureless closure for primary total anomalous pulmonary venous connection: seventeen cases

Original Research

Abstract

Introduction: Total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC) is a rare condition. Mortality of TAPVC has improved dramatically in the present. Sutureless closure had initially used for congenital pulmonary venous stenosis (PVS) or post-repair PVS. Recently, it had been adopted for primary TAPVC to prevent postoperative pulmonary venous obstruction, a leading cause of death. This technique had gradually applied at our institute for primary TAPVC since 2018.

Methods: Prospective case series was conducted from mid-2019. Including criteria consists of patients with primary TAPVC. These are all supracardiac, infracardiac, mixed type and intracardiac TAPVC with pulmonary venous stenosis. Excluding measures are TAPVC with single ventricle, isomerism or heterotaxy. End-point outcomes were mortality and short-term PVS.

Results: Seventeen TAPVC cases were enrolled in this study from 06/2019-12/2020 at Children's Hospital 1. Male/female ratio was 12/5. Median age at admission was 44 (3-1010) days old. The median operative weight was 3.9 kg (2.4-11). Of those, fourteen (82.4%) cases were supracardiac TAPVC and 3 (17.6%) cases were infracardiac TAPVC. Nine (52.9%) cases were emergency operations. Median aortic clamp time was 66 (32-138) mins. Median bypass time was 112 (86-212) mins. There were 9 (52.9%) cases with arrhythmias, 2 (11.8%) cases with chylothorax. Mean ventilation time was 3.6±0.5 days; mean CICU time was 6.5 (1-20), median LOS was 14.5 (8-39). In-hospital mortality was 5.9% (1). Mean follow-up time was 12.3±6.4 months (range 4-24), there was no PVS with median pulmonary venous score of 0 (range 0-1).

Conclusions: Sutureless technique could be a safe option for primary TAPVC repair.

Graphical abstract

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