A cross-sectional survey-based study of the cold and heat pattern of recovering patients after COVID-19 at the University medical center at Ho Chi Minh City branch 3 and students of the faculty of Traditional medicine, University of Medicine and Pharmacy at Ho Chi Minh City.

Original Research


Introduction: Due to the surge of the post-COIVD-19 patients, numerous publications were recently presented, including applying Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in accelerating recovering pace. However, most TCM studies mainly focused on interventions and their effect on the patients. In the general characteristic of the post-COVID-19 syndrome in TCM, this study identified the relationship between post-COVID-19 syndrome and cold–heat patterns, one of the essential principles of the Eight Principles in TCM.

Method: We established a cross-sectional study on 384 participants at University Medical Centre HCMC - branch No.3 and the faculty of Traditional medicine, UMP, from January 2022 to April 2022 (including outpatients, inpatients, and students). A questionnaire was built to collect data on socio–demography, post-COVID-19 status, and cold-heat patterns. Cold-heat patterns were gathered based on the “Cold and heat patterns identification questionnaire” developed by Yeo M et al. (2016). All eligible participants were free to choose a suitable interview method, including by phone, by URL link, or by face-to-face interview.

Result: We enrolled 384 eligible patients, and 17 samples were removed due to missing. The median age was 33 (24 - 42) and the median BMI was 21.97 (19.78 – 23.88), and females took up to 62%. We found the relationship between gender and cold-heat pattern with post-COVID-19 status (p<0.05).

Conclusion: The relevance of post-COVID-19 status and cold–heat patterns took the first step in comprehensively observing general TCM characteristics of the post-COVID-19 syndrome. 

Graphical abstract